Acre, a thriving city in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, became a center for manuscript and artistic production in the last years of Latin domination of the Kingdom, from as early as 1225 until the late thirteenth century. Acre was also an important locale for administration, particularly after Christians re-took the city from Muslim hands in 1191. After this time, the royal court relocated from Jerusalem to Acre, along with several other ecclesiastical groups seeking refuge from territories that remained in Muslim hands. From the end of the twelfth until the end of the thirteenth century, Acre was the political and ecclesiastical center of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The different types of French-language texts that emanated from Acre include:

    1. Deluxe manuscripts from the famed Scriptorium in Acre;
    2. Legal and diplomatic texts from the royal court and other secular and religious institutions that had been relocated from Jerusalem in the late twelfth century;
    3. Texts produced by the Hospitallers until their move to Cyprus, including texts emanating from their organization and translations of texts into French from several other languages for their own consumption


Jacoby, David. “Society, Culture, and the Arts in Crusader Acre,” in France and the Holy Land. Frankish Culture at the End of the Crusades. Edited by Daniel Weiss and Lisa Mahoney, 97-137. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.