Medieval Frenches

The French of England

Directors: Dr. Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Dr. Maryanne Kowaleski

The French of England introduces the field of Anglo-Norman and Anglo-French texts written in the Middle Ages.  This significant documentary corpus composed in the Frenches of England contains well over one thousand texts, which are the subject of much important recent work by literary scholars, linguists, and historians.

The website includes annotated bibliographies on the French-language literature and historical records of medieval England, a glossary of terms, pedagogical resources, and links to other digital resources.  It also lists past conferences, contact information for faculty who research the French of England, and publications—particularly the French of England Translation Series (FRETS).


The French of Italy

Director: Dr. Laura Morreale

Between the mid-thirteenth and the late fifteenth centuries, a great number of French texts were written by Italian-speaking authors or in geographic locales where early forms of Italian were the main mode of oral communication. French texts that were first written in other French-speaking areas were also copied and actively circulated in Italy during this time.

The French of Italy provides background information and commentary on individual authors, texts, and manuscripts from this corpus, as well as bibliographic lists and links to digitized primary and secondary sources.  The website is organized according to geographically-defined communities such as the writers of Franco-Italian (“Franco-Lombard” and “Franco-Venetian”), the Italian Angevins of Southern Italy, and Northern Italian writers of French.

The French of Italy Time Map was archived in 1-14-2019, to access the Archiving Dossier Narrative and additional project documentation please visit 10.5281/zenodo.2539703

Another Fordham archived digital project, Exploring Place in the French of Italy, supplements The French of Italy by mapping French-language texts composed or copied in Italy between 1250 and 1500.


French of Outremer

Director: Dr. Laura Morreale

The French of Outremer highlights the many French-language texts produced by Westerners living in the Latin East in the years following the Crusades, from the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries.  The French vernacular of these texts and records was still in the early stages of development at the time of the First Crusade.  Within the permanent settlements of the Latin East (also called the Crusader States, the Levant, the Latin Kingdoms, or Outremer), French-language texts were created, copied, and circulated among inhabitants of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, adding to the lexical complexity of the corpus.

The website is organized so that the French-language sources from Outremer can be viewed either by type (legal, narrative, poetic, diplomatic, religious, etc.) or according to time, place, and proposed author.  Source pages include summaries of each work, bibliographic lists that link to digitized primary and secondary material, and commentary from subject experts.